Research projects

The two main projects that I’m leading are ENIGMA-ADHD and IMpACT2.


Many neuroimaging studies in ADHD have been published, each with its own contribution to science. However, brain imaging studies are expensive and therefore the sample size of studies is often small. Also, a wide variety of methods are used, which makes it difficult to compare studies. This all results in inconsistent findings and still many uncertainties about the neurobiology of ADHD. To enigma_300dpiaddress these issues we founded the ENIGMA-ADHD consortium. Here, over a 100 of experts in the field are united to share their expertise and their data. This way we can reanalyze existing data in large meta-and mega-analyses to try to get as close as possible to finding true effects in the brain. Our first paper is published in The Lancet Psychiatry and received a lot of press.


Displayed above are the collaborating sites; 39 in total with brain data of over 4300 subjects (ADHD patients and healthy controls).

Current projects:

  • Subcortical volume analysis (Martine Hoogman, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Complete: Manuscript published in the Lancet Psychiatry, Febr, 2017.
  • Brain imaging of the cortex in ADHD (Martine Hoogman). Complete: Manuscript published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, July 2019.
  • DTI (Martine Hoogman, Emma Sprooten and Marcel Zwiers) – Radboud University Medical Center). Ongoing – data inclusion is still open.
  • Anatomy of the cerebellum (Philip Shaw, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, USA). Completed: Publised in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Oct 2018.
  • Cortical shape (Boris Gutman & Pamela Douglas, University of Southern California, USA). Ongoing – data inclusion is still open.
  • Using Multi-task Deep Learning Neural Networks to discriminate ADHD Cases and Controls (Steve Faraone, Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA). Completed: available on BioRxiv
  • Identification of individuals at risk for psychopathology in a population sample (Thomas Wolfers, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Ongoing
  • Characterizing heterogeneity of children with ADHD based on brain volume by using community detection (Ting Li, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Completed: to be submitted
  • Using Autoencoder Pretraining to boost performance and generalizability of Predictive Models to discriminate ADHD Cases and Controls  (Tim Hahn, University of Frankfurt, Germany). Ongoing
  • ENIGMA cross-disorder comparison for neurodevelopmental disorders (van Rooij, Boedhoe, Hoogman). Completed: under review.
  • Brain Laterality in ADHD (Merel Postema, Clyde Francks, MPI, Nijmegen). Ongoing
  • Virtual Histology (Paus, Patel, University of Toronto). Ongoing


IMpACT2 is an updated project and started as IMpACT1 in 2007. The aim of both IMpACT1&2 is to better understand adult ADHD. We do this by studying behavior, cognition, brain structure/functioning and genetics to learn more about the disorder.Our local IMpACT projects are embedded within the international IMpACT collaboration.

We started the inclusion of new adult participants (both ADHD as well as controls) for IMPACT2. For more information about participation please send an email to: adhderfelijkheid (@) (Dutch participants only)


Other projects that I am involved with:

aggressotype_logoAggressotype: knowledge about aggression aetiology is limited and current treatment strategies are insufficient. Contingent to a subdivision into impulsive and instrumental subtypes, this project aims to investigate the aetiology of maladaptive aggression in paediatric conduct disorders most strongly predisposing to pathological aggression, Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), and in the general population.

coca_logo_farbig_rgbCoCA: Psychiatric disorders are highly comorbid, and are among the last areas of medicine where disease classification is driven by phenomenology rather than pathophysiology. CoCA studies comorbidity between the most frequent psychiatric conditions, ADHD, mood / anxiety and substance use disorders, and a highly prevalent somatic disease, obesity.

imagmendlogoIMAGEMEND: To improve the clinical management and aetiological understanding of mental illness through discovery of neuroimaging based diagnostic, trans-diagnostic and predictive markers and their translation into clinical tests and therapeutics.


Cognomics: Through advanced neuroimaging analyses and extensive behavioral testing, in combination with state-of-the-art genetics and genomics research we hope to learn in the following years, how the genetic infrastructure of an individual builds a brain that is cognition-ready, how interindividual differences in memory, language and selected cognomicslogobehavioral traits come about, and how genetic factors involved in complex brain pathology (as in psychiatric disorders) affect brain structure and function.